The Temperate Forests Facing the Boreal Wall: The Importance of Belowground Biotic and Abiotic Factors on Tree Establishment


Climate warming has caused many terrestrial organisms to expand their ranges poleward and upward in elevation. If plant distributions were primarily determined by climatic conditions, climate and plant distributions should shift geographically in concert, but many studies show that suitable climatic conditions for a given species shift much faster than species range limits. Although lower success and rate of species range expansion can be due to specific features (e.g., propagule availability), it may also indicate negative impact of non-climatic factors. Further investigation is needed to understand the underlying processes and external drivers of species range limits and potential range shifts.